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MUSIC Unit 4 Romantic Era #3 Chap. 26b – Romanticism in Classical Forms: Orchestral & Chamber Music Chap. 29 – Late Romanticism in German Musical C

MUSIC

Unit 4
Romantic Era #3

Chap. 26b – Romanticism in Classical Forms: Orchestral & Chamber Music

Chap. 29 – Late Romanticism in German Musical Culture

Chap. 30 – Diverging Traditions in the Later 19th Century

MUSI 1307 – MUSIC LITERATURE

In this lecture, we will cover

Orchestral Music – Berlioz, Mendelssohn

German Musical Culture – Brahms, The New German School, Strauss

France – Franck, Faure

Russia – Tchaikovsky, Mussorgsky

Bohemia (Czech) – Dvorak

Norway – Grieg

England – Elgar

US = MacDowell, Beach, Sousa

Orchestral Music

Growth in public concerts

Orchestra size grew

Comparison to Beethoven’s works

Franz Schubert – keeps form with focus on tuneful melodies/emotion

Unfinished Symphony

Great Symphony No. 9 in C Major –
LISTEN

Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)

Wrote programmatic symphonies (emotions tell story)

Paris Conservatory

Won the Prix de Rome in 1830

Wrote Symphonie Fantastique (1830) – musical drama

Idee fixes

Final mvt “Dream of a Witches’ Sabbath” – Dies irae –
LISTENING #1

Symphony No. 2, Harold en Italie (1834) – features solo viola and trip to Italy

Felix Mendelssohn

Italian Symphony, No. 4 (1833)

Midsummer Night’s Dream (1826) – overture with orchestral color

Violin Concerto (1844) – all 3 mvts connected

LISTENING #2

Schubert String Quintet in C Major –
LISTENING #3

German Musical Culture

Musicology

“War of the Romantics”

Absolute music vs. Program music

Tradition vs. Innovation

Classical genres & forms vs. new ones

Nationalism

Johannes Brahms (1833-1897)

Loved past composers

Relationship with Robert and Clara Schumann

Leading German Composer

Beethoven’s influence

LISTEN – Symphony No. 4 (1885) in E Minor, Op. 98: 4th mvt – chaconne

Piano Music – 3 sonatas, variations

Choral work – Ein Deutsches Requiem, Op. 45 (A German Requiem, 1868) –
LISTENING #4

War of the Romantics

Absolute Music, Traditionalist, Classical genres Program Music, Innovation, New genres
Mendelssohn
Schumann
Brahms
Absolute Music, Traditionalist, Classical genres Program Music, Innovation, New genres
Mendelssohn
Schumann
Brahms

The New German School

The New German School

Wagner, Liszt, Berlioz, Bruckner, Wolf, Strauss

Franz Liszt – 13 symphonic poems – thematic transformation

LISTENING #5 – Les Preludes S. 94 (1854)

Anton Bruckner (1824-1896) – absorbed Wagner’s style & ideals

Wrote 11 symphonies

Hugo Wolf (1860-1903) – adapted Wagner’s method for lied

War of the Romantics

Absolute Music, Traditionalist, Classical genres Program Music, Innovation, New genres
Mendelssohn The New German School
Schumann Wagner
Brahms List
Berlioz
Absolute Music, Traditionalist, Classical genres Program Music, Innovation, New genres
Mendelssohn The New German School
Schumann Wagner
Brahms List
Berlioz

Richard Strauss (1864-1949)

Influenced by Berlioz and Liszt

Symphonic Poems

Don Juan (1889)

Till Eulenspiegel (1895)

Also sprach Zarathustra (1896)

Don Quixote (1897) – for cello, viola and orchestra –
LISTENING #6

“Fantastic Variations on a Theme of Knightly Character”

Based on novel, “Don Quixote de la Mancha” by Cervantes

Cello – Don Quixote; Violia – Sancho Panzo; Farm Girl

FRANCE

Before Impressionism, 2 main types of compositions:

Cosmopolitan (influence from composers of other countries)

French Tradition (influence from French composers)

Cesar Franck (1822-1890) – Cosmopolitan

Influenced by Liszt and Wagner

Franck Prelude, Chorale and Fugue –
LISTEN

Franck Violin Sonata –
LISTEN

Gabriel Faure (1845-1924) – French Traditions

Focus on lyrical melodies, tone, color

Faure song cycle, La bonne Chanson (The Good Song) –
LISTEN

War of the Romantics

Absolute Music, Traditionalist, Classical genres Program Music, Innovation, New genres
Mendelssohn The New German School
Schumann Wagner
Brahms List
Faure Berlioz
Strauss
Franck

RUSSIA

Tchaikovsky Symphony No. 4 (1878)

Tchaikovsky Symphony No. 6 –
LISTEN

Mussorgsky – Pictures at an Exhibition (1874)

Orchestrated by Ravel –
LISTENING #7

BOHEMIA (Czech)

Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904) – uses Czech folk songs

Dvorak wrote 9 symphonies, 4 concertos and works for orchestra

Slavic Dances for 2 pianos – familiar dance rhythms
LISTEN

LISTEN – Dvorak “New World” Symphony No. 9 in E Minor. Conductor Dudamel –
LISTEN

LISTEN – Dvorak Cello Concerto

Norway

Edvard Grieg (1843-1907) – Norwegian melodies, harmonies and dances

Peer Gynt Suites (1875) –
LISTEN

Morning

In the Hall of the Mountain King

England

Edward Elgar (1857-1934) – no academic training

Enigma Variations (1899)

Cello Concerto (1919) –
LISTEN

UNITED STATES

Theodore Thomas (1835-1905) – 1st conductor of Chicago Symphony

Edward MacDowell (1860-1908) – “To a Wild Rose” Op. 51 (1896) –
LISTEN

Amy Marcy Cheney Beach (1867-1944) – female composer

Gaelic Symphony (1896) – American sound –
LISTEN

Band Music

John Philip Sousa (1854-1932) – Conducted US Marine Band

“The Stars and Stripes Forever” March

Tin Pan Alley – “After the Ball” by Charles K. Harris –
LISTEN

African-American slaves – “Go Down, Moses”

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